Ennemoser, M. & Schneider, W. (2007). Relations of television viewing
and reading: Findings from a 4-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 99(2), 349-368.
This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing
on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German
children (N1 = 165, N2 = 167), measures of television viewing were collected
over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered
annually. As a main result, TV genre (educational vs. entertainment programs)
produced different effects. Whereas educational program viewing was positively
correlated with reading achievement, relations between entertainment program
viewing and reading performance were generally negative. Children who were classified
as heavy viewers (average viewing time per day = 117 min) showed lower progress
in reading over time as compared to medium and light viewers (average viewing
times per day 69 and 35 min, respectively). Partial support was found only for
1 of the 3 tested causal mechanisms, namely television-induced reduction in
leisure-time book reading.